Bernd, thanks for your thoughtful response and question.
The rate will depend on whom we’re comparing our service to.
For example, an expat living in Thailand (with far cheaper living expenses) might be able to charge a lot less than me, for the same apparent service of Business Coaching, even though I might in turn charge “less” than other Americans or Europeans.
However, in my marketing I wouldn’t want to compare myself to that Thailand expat because I would seem expensive. I’d rather compare myself to other Americans/Europeans who charge more than me. And realistically, the fact that I live in San Francisco means I probably bring a more business-savvy viewpoint to my clients — not to mention better internet connectivity, time zone similarities — than my Thai expat counterpart.
Long story short, we get to decide what “market rate” we compare ourselves to…